Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by living beings. Computer science defines AI research as the study of “intelligence agents,” which includes any device that perceives its environment and acts to maximize chance of success. Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is used when a machine mimics cognitive functions that we associate with the human mind. This includes anything involving learning and problem solving. The AI field draws upon computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many others.